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Alcohol Abuse Vs Alcoholism

Binge drinking is defined as drinking enough to raise your blood alcohol concentration to 0.08 within 2 hours. In simple terms, this is drinking to get drunk by consuming a large quantity of alcohol in a short period of time.

  • Alcohol use disorder, or alcoholism, is more than just drinking too much from time to time.
  • For over 20 years Dr. Umhau was a senior clinical investigator at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health .
  • This behavior may be a sign of experimentation with alcohol gone too far, especially in the case of adolescents or young adults.
  • He has served as the Chief Medical Officer for regional and national behavioral health companies and worked to develop public and private substance abuse and dual diagnosis facilities.
  • If they choose not to address their drinking problem, they’re likely to drink themselves into an alcohol-induced illness, such as cirrhosis or cancer.

The neurobiology of substance use, misuse, and addiction. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Enabling occurs when someone else covers up or makes excuses for the person who has a SUD. As a result, the person with a SUD doesn’t deal with the consequences of their actions. Don’t allow the disappointments and mistakes of the past affect your choices today—circumstances have probably changed.

Next Steps

Be prepared to remain calm in the face of your loved one’s accusations, hurt or anger, which is often meant to deflect or derail the conversation. Here, you can decide who will speak when, sitting arrangements and other details, so there’s no fumbling during the real intervention with your loved one. Having one point of contact for all team members will help you communicate and stay on track. If the program requires travel, make arrangements ahead of time — consider having a packed suitcase ready for your loved one. It’s very important to consult an intervention professional if you suspect your loved one may react violently or self-destructively. An intervention presents your loved one with a structured opportunity to make changes before things get even worse, and it can motivate him or her to seek or accept help.

  • Drinking heavily is classified as 3 or more drinks in a day for women and 4 or more drinks in a day for men.
  • Your current alcohol consumption is not considered dangerous.
  • But in some alcoholics, withdrawal is not just unpleasant—it can be life threatening.
  • Alcohol abuse is considered a milder form of alcohol use disorder.

It gets in the way of my job performance and family responsibilities. Benefits of drinkingIt helps me forget about my problems. Make a table like the one below, weighing the costs and benefits of drinking to the costs and benefits of quitting.

Frequently Asked Questions About Alcohol Addiction

Express your concerns in a caring way and encourage your friend or family member to get help. Try to remain neutral and don’t argue, lecture, accuse, or threaten. Build a sober social network – If your previous social life revolved around alcohol, you may need to make some new connections. It’s important to have sober friends who will support your recovery. Try taking a class, joining a church or a civic group, volunteering, or attending events in your community. Make a note about how you feel physically and mentally on these days—recognizing the benefits may help you to cut down for good.

struggling with alcohol addiction

The 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found 9.2 million men and 5.3 million women in the U.S. had an alcohol use disorder. WebMD Connect to Care helps you find services to manage your health. When you purchase any of these services, WebMD may receive a fee. WebMD does not endorse any product, service or treatment referred to on this page. However, certain food groups also have benefits when it comes to helping with the discomfort of withdrawal symptoms and detoxification. Of this type, about76% are maleand only7.6% have received a college degree, although another13.4% are still in school.

Articles About Alcohol Addiction

What might seem like a reasonable expectation in some circumstances might be totally unreasonable when it comes to someone with an addiction. When your loved one swears to you and to themselves that they will never touch another drop of alcohol, you might believe them. If you have children, it’s important to protect them from unacceptable behavior as well. Do not tolerate hurtful or negative comments addressed towards them.

There are some programs called «day treatment» in which patients spend the entire day at the treatment center but go home at night or on weekends. Inpatient treatment is very expensive and can easily cost $5,000 to $10,000. As a supervisor, you are responsible for confronting the employee. In most agencies, it is the employee relations or human resources specialist who actually prepares or drafts adverse or disciplinary action letters, including those involving a firm choice. A firm choice is a clear warning to an employee who has raised alcohol or drug abuse in connection with a specific performance, conduct, or leave use incident or deficiency. He or she must make a choice between accepting treatment for the alcohol or drug problem and improving job performance or facing disciplinary action, up to and including removal.

Types of Professionals Involved in Care

Our tragedy is that we love the wrong things, or we love the right things disproportionately and are ultimately enslaved by those loves. The other problem is deeper; addiction scientists often may not share the same metaphysical or theological assumptions as the Christian community.

struggling with alcohol addiction

Support can come from family members, friends, counselors, other recovering alcoholics, your healthcare providers, and people from your faith community. Whether you choose to tackle your alcohol addiction by going to rehab, getting therapy, or taking a self-directed treatment approach, support is essential. Recovering from alcohol addiction or abuse is much easier when you have people you can lean on for encouragement, comfort, and struggling with alcohol addiction guidance. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually start within hours after you stop drinking, peak in a day or two, and improve within five days. But in some alcoholics, withdrawal is not just unpleasant—it can be life threatening. Some people are able to stop drinking on their own or with the help of a 12-step program or other support group . Others need medical supervision in order to withdraw from alcohol safely and comfortably.

Follow-up Care

If the employee does not choose to go into treatment, the next step will be to take any disciplinary or corrective actions that are necessary. Before actually meeting with the employee, you should gather any documentation of performance or conduct problems and think about what items to discuss with the employee. It is important to be specific about the problems in the employee’s performance and conduct and the particular incidents of concern. It might be helpful to rehearse this or at least go over the documentation with the EAP counselor. It is generally a good practice to notify any employee who is being counseled for a performance or conduct problem about the availability of the EAP.

struggling with alcohol addiction

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Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy: Overview, Cardiac Effects of Alcohol, Quantity of Alcohol Intake in Cardiac Disease

It is estimated, approximately 21-36% of all non-ischemic cardiomyopathies are attributed to alcohol. The prevalance of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in addiction units is estimated around %. Overall data with regards to alcohol induced cardiomyopathy is insuffienct and does not illustrate significant available data.

alcoholic cardiomyopathy

The amount a person drinks and other factors can also affect how a person responds to treatment. Cardiomyopathy itself is heart disease with several potential causes and risk factors that don’t involve alcohol but may be related to other heart conditions or health behaviors. The exact cause of cardiomyopathy, especially in younger adults and children, can be challenging to determine. Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease that occurs when the heart muscle is thicker or stiffer than it is supposed to be. Cardiomyopathy that has developed as a result of chronic alcohol use is known as .

The Mayo Clinic experience and patient stories

You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy. 10.Manthey J, Imtiaz S, Neufeld M, Rylett M, Rehm J. Quantifying the global contribution of alcohol consumption to cardiomyopathy. Certain microscopic features may suggest damage secondary to alcohol causing cardiomyopathy. Commonly seen cellular structural alterations include changes in the mitochondrial reticulum, cluster formation of mitochondria and disappearance of inter-mitochondrial junctions. In later stages, minor mitochondria and septic mitochondria can be seen. The only way to completely prevent alcoholic cardiomyopathy is not to drink alcohol at all. The muscles that control the lower chambers of your heart, the left and right ventricle, are especially prone to this kind of stretching.

  • The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet (F.G.), University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Specialized residential alcohol addiction rehab programs can provide a structured and stable environment where trained professionals can help to manage both alcoholism and medical illness complications and disorders.
  • The change trends of ASDR, age-standardized DALY rate globally and among different SDI quintiles between 1990 and 2019.
  • Ask any patient presenting with new heart failure of unclear etiology about their alcohol history, with attention to daily, maximal, and lifetime intake and the duration of that intake.
  • Each of the following examples of those forms is equal to one drink.
  • Since alcoholic cardiomyopathy comes after years of alcohol usage, your doctor may recommend an addiction treatment rehab program.

The exact manner in which alcohol produces this effect is not known, but the effect is consistent, is observed throughout the heart, and may be exaggerated under stressful conditions. These patients may also benefit from a dietary consult to assess nutrition.

Who’s at Risk for Developing Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy?

If a person continues to drink after the onset of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the outcome is not good. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology warns that as many as 42 percent of people who continue to regularly consume alcohol after being diagnosed with the disease are likely to die within three years. Cardiomyopathy leads to the heart muscle getting rigid, thick, and enlarged, which may weaken the heart and make it more difficult for it to effectively pump blood. Cardiomyopathy can then lead to arrhythmias , a weakened heart valve, or heart failure, which can be fatal.

What is the best drink to flush your liver?

  • Coffee. Coffee is good for the liver, especially because it protects against issues such as fatty liver disease.
  • Ginger and lemon drink.
  • Oatmeal drink.
  • Tumeric drink.
  • Green tea.
  • Grapefruit drink.

In some cases, especially those that are more severe, heart failure symptoms and related conditions may develop or get worse. Your healthcare provider is the best person to explain the risks and possible complications that you might face from this condition itself, related health concerns or any of the treatments that you will receive. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a condition where consuming too much alcohol damages your heart.

How should I change my diet if I have this condition?

Once the damage is considered irreversible, it’s difficult for the heart and rest of the body to recover. Alcohol abuse has a toxic effect on many of your organs, including the heart.

  • This is extremely important since detox alone is not enough to ensure long-term sobriety.
  • It is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in children and it’s more likely to occur in males.
  • Panel A. The absolute number of ACM death cases in 2019; Panel B. The ASDR of ACM in 2019.
  • Electrolyte abnormalities, including hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia, should be corrected promptly because of the risk of arrhythmia and sudden death.
  • Long-term excessive alcohol consumption has been determined to be the third leading cause of premature death in the United States, and the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption account for 3.8% of all deaths worldwide.
  • The aims of the present study were to define the long-term outcome of ACM, to compare the patient characteristics between the death and survival groups, and to determine prognostic markers.

In addition to the physical, your physician will ask about your medical history, which will include your history of alcohol usage. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs after chronic and long-term alcohol abuse. In this rare type of cardiomyopathy, the muscle in the lower right heart chamber is replaced by scar tissue, which can lead to heart rhythm problems.

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El Chapo paid Mexican president $100m to leave him alone World

Rosa described this as a hard time for her because she was really falling in love with this guy despite of “what people were telling me about him being a womaniser”. She did not care about what people said about her or the risks this relationship may cause. He is accused of conspiring to smuggle cocaine into the US and of having people killed to protect his drug business. Mr Hernandez was previously accused of accepting bribes and of having links to drug-traffickers during the 2019 trial in which his brother Juan Antonio Hernandez was convicted.

Investigative journalist Gary Webb’s 1998 book Dark Alliance, for example, exposed the CIA’s support for drug smuggling Nicaraguan Contras. And their drug money helped to finance theirwar against the country’s Sandinista government. In its new posture of ostensibly supporting Castro, the State Department has publicly welcomed her commitment to fighting corruption. When hundreds of thousands of Hondurans rose up in 2015 to protest Hernández’s theft from the national health service, the US blocked their demand for a UN-based commission. Instead, it orchestrated a far weaker body under the auspices of the Organization of American States, in order to maintain control and whitewash the regime, while attempting to discipline it. The State Department’s recent lists of corrupt individuals, mandated by Congress, have assiduously ignored Hernández, his top advisor, the president of congress, the attorney general, and the minister of security.

Is the right to a fair trial easily circumvented?

The aide was not named but later Gabriel Regino, an official in Mexico City when Lopez Obrador was mayor, wrote on Twitter that an accusation of bribery had emerged against him in the trial but was false. Captured by Pena Nieto’s government in February 2014, Guzman broke out of prison for a second time some 17 months later, escaping through a mile-long tunnel dug right into in his cell. On 14 January, Alex Cifuentes testified during the trial of his former partner in crime Joaquín ‘El Chapo‘ Guzmán.

He was arrested in Mexico in 2013 and was later extradited to the United States where he pleaded guilty to drug trafficking in a deal with prosecutors. Guzmán is accused of being behind the Sinaloa drug cartel, which prosecutors say was the largest US drug supplier. Former Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto accepted a $100m (£77m) bribe from drug cartel kingpin Joaquín «El Chapo» Guzmán, a witness has testified. A lawyer for Guzman, Jeffrey Lichtman, said in his opening statement on the first day of the Brooklyn trial that Guzamn was a scapegoat for the alleged real leadre of the cartel, Ismael «El Mayo» Zambada Garcia. Jesus Zambada, another cartel member, testified in November he paid a multimillion dollar bribe to an aide of current Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador in 2005.

They can get by being ‘the girl of’, but that sucks, because by the next day or next week they will already have another girlfriend, and they will end up getting dumped”. “With one sale of marijuana my dad would make half of what those who sold poppy gum would make. Poppy was like a bet, you could earn more money than marijuana with a smaller amount, but it was not clear whether you would be paid,” Claudia shared with me. “I guess at that time the police paid more attention to heroin… and cocaine,” she added. Even beans and corn were expensive to grow and even after harvesting them, it was still hard to find someone who would buy them at a good price. I remember that as a kid, she continued, my mom would always call out to my brothers and sister to be in a different room while men arrived to our house and paid him for marijuana. She wasn’t ashamed of what he did, but she didn’t like us to be around when he was negotiating the prince.

And yet the US government estimates that more than 80 per cent of the drugs that cross the border do so through legal checkpoints. The cartel has smuggled cocaine in cans of pickled jalapeños, frozen shark carcasses and fake bananas, and is increasingly responsible for the influx of methamphetamine into the US. Earlier this month, Vincente Zambada, the son of Sinaloa’s other top leader, Mayo Zambada, spent two days on the witness stand describing how the cartel would buy as many as 15 cars at a time and install hidden compartments in them that could hold up to thirty kilos of cocaine. In his 2011 book El Narco, Ioan Grillo writes that the cartels would offer a flat rate of $1000 to drive a kilo of marijuana into the US, and more for heroin, cocaine or meth. For residents of border towns, the task can be completed in three hours, and it pays the equivalent of a month’s work at a factory in Juárez. But the biggest threat to the president’s ability to govern as she chooses is the United States.

Gangs and drug traffickers, working hand in hand with the military and police, consolidated their control over all levels of government. ‘They recruited attractive, affluent youths with dual citizenship because they could cross the border with minimal inspection.’ Today, many narco-juniors tend to flaunt their wealth on social media with photos of pet panthers and stacks of cash. ​ negotiations over a border wall remain at an impasse in Washington, a case is unfolding in a federal district courtroom in Brooklyn that casts President Trump’s ambition in a new light. Joaquin ‘El Chapo’ Guzmán stands accused of running Mexico’s Sinaloa cartel, and trafficking billions of dollars’ worth of drugs into the United States. Having escaped from prison twice, Chapo – the nickname means ‘shorty’ – was arrested in Sinaloa in 2016 and extradited to the US a year later.

In 2008, Julio Scherer García immortalised Beltran in the history of drug trafficking in Mexico after he interviewed her in the female prison of Santa Marta Acatitla. In 2002, she was implicated in a seized shipment of US Dollars 1,500,000 in Mexico City Airport. Guzman is the son of 62-year-old Joaquín «El Chapo» Guzman, who was found guilty in New York of 10 counts including drug trafficking and money laundering. López Obrador’s government successfully petitioned for his return, having accused the United States of acting without their knowledge and failing to act like an ally. The country’s congress also approved laws limiting the actions of the DEA in Mexico – a move US officials warned would cripple cross-border cooperation on security issues.

Emma Coronel was born in Santa Clara, California and is the daughter of Ines Coronel Barreras, a medium-ranking lieutenant in the Sinaloa cartel. Her arrest is likely to further complicate relations between the administrations of Joe Biden and his Mexican counterpart Andrés Manuel López Obrador, and comes as security cooperation between Mexico and the United States appears to have cooled. For highlights from the latest issue, our archive and the blog, as well as news, events and exclusive promotions.

  • The Mara Salvatrucha gang formed in Los Angeles; mass opium cultivation began in California before moving down to Mexico.
  • At the time Mr Calderon dismissed the allegations as «absolutely false and reckless».
  • “The US government knows full well that nothing has changed and nothing will change with El Chapo’s conviction,” one of his lawyers, Eduardo Balarezo, said in atweet.
  • Guzman has been largely cut off from the outside world since his extradition in 2017 and his remarks in the courtroom on Wednesday could be the last time the public hears from him.

Finally, women have the qualities and experience needed to enjoy the highest status in DTOs. This category challenges the traditional image of women in cartels as subordinates. Apart from their ability to be successful in trafficking activities, women of this category occupy leading positions in DTOs. They have a greater “invisibility” to law enforcement, explained in part by a widespread assumption that women are less likely to engage in crime. However, given the increasing visibility of the inclusion of women in drug trafficking, it is likely that this feature of invisibility will become increasingly less important in future . Edgar Ivan Galván, a US citizen and hapless low-level narco who also testified recently, said he met ‘El Jaguar’, a notoriously violent hitman, in a Mexican nightclub.

Dutch activists sue government over assisted suicide

It was unclear how Cifuentes’ testimony, which appeared to implicate Guzman, could be used to defend him, though Lichtman honed in on inconsistencies in Cifuentes’ memory. Cifuentes admitted that at a meeting last year, he told prosecutors he was no longer sure of the exact amounts of the bribes, but did not elaborate. Lichtman had promised jurors in his opening statement last November they would hear how Mexican drug kingpin Ismael ‘El Mayo’ Zambada bribed Pena Nieto and another former president as part of a scheme to frame Guzman. The former president – Enrique Peña Nieto – has previously denied taking bribes.

Future studies are needed to establish theoretical frameworks through a thorough examination of gender, structure, and agency in the context of cross-border drug trafficking. I explained to her that I was a student from the Autonomous University of Sinaloa and was writing my thesis about women and drug trafficking. But before she could say anything, I clearly explained to her that no names had to be mentioned and that I was not going to record our conversation. She confessed to me that she thought that I was a journalist or, even worst, someone who worked for the government. Claudia asked me to be honest because if I was lying to her she would definitely find out. I said that it was normal for her not to trust me but if she wanted she could check with my school if I was a real student or not and what kind of research I was doing.

The jailbreak humiliated the government and battered the president’s already damaged credibility, though Pena Nieto personally announced news of the kingpin’s third capture when he was again arrested in northwestern Mexico in January 2016. Cifuentes said he told prosecutors at a later meeting, last year, that he was no longer sure of the exact amounts of the bribes, but did not elaborate. Zambada – a 57-year-old trained accountant who was arrested in 2008 and is still in U.S. custody – was the first of several cooperators expected to give jurors an inside look at a cartel with a legendary lust for drugs, cash and violence. Zambada, who worked for the cartel from 1987 until his arrest in 2008, was returning to the witness stand on the third day of a trial expected to last about four months. Jesus ‘El Rey’ Zambada, brother of the cartel’s co-head Ismael ‘El Mayo’ Zambada, who remains at large, returned to the witness stand on Thursday for Guzman’s federal trial in Brooklyn. Before he was sentenced, Guzman complained about the conditions of his confinement and told the judge he was denied a fair trial.

Guzman’s lawyers have set out to downplay the cartel leader’s significance, presenting him not as an all-powerful capo but merely a figure in a web of corruption so immense it ensnared the two former and current presidents. But Alex Cifuentes, a Colombian who was Guzman’s right-hand man until his 2013 capture, told the court that the money was delivered around the time of Mr Pena Nieto’s inauguration, via an intermediary while Guzman was on the run. The name of the official was not immediately clear from the court testimony.

Jaguar convinced Galván to act as a testaferro, a frontman who could use his status as a US citizen to rent safehouses for the cartel in El Paso. According to Galván, in addition to transporting drugs and eliminating enemies – Jaguar owned a soundproofed, white-tiled garage with a drain in the floor – his boss also bribed Mexican customs officials so he could smuggle guns into Mexico. These weapons, purchased with Sinaloa money, were used to wage war against La Linea, a rival cartel in Ciudad Juárez. Since the early 1990s, assault rifles and other weapons have flowed into Mexico at an alarming rate. A report last year found that 253,000 guns enter Mexico every year from the US; 70 per cent of all guns in Mexico have US origins. The trial has featured numerous allegations of bribes or attempts to bribe high-level officials in Mexico and Columbia, including police commanders and other officials in charge of fighting the drug cartels.

They built a powerful culture of resistance, demonstrating in the streets by the tens of thousands for over two years and building strategic international pressure on the regime. Castro’s party, LIBRE (Libertad y Refundación), emerged out of that Resistance in 2011. These girls want to be close to them because of their money and power.

  • A Mexican crime lord paid a $100 million bribe to a newly elected Mexican president, a Colombian drug trafficker has told a court in New York.
  • Putting the Sinaloa Cartel at a more disadvantageous position might well result in empowering its biggest rival organisation – The Jalisco New Generation.
  • US District Judge Brian Cogan, however, refused to allow Guzman’s lawyers to question Zambada’s brother about the alleged bribes last year.
  • It’s important to mark that historic moment, when the US reversed its decade-long project of supporting the post-coup regime.
  • Future studies are needed to establish theoretical frameworks through a thorough examination of gender, structure, and agency in the context of cross-border drug trafficking.

Richard Bistrongdiscussesinternational business attitudes toward corruption. A Colombian drug trafficker has testified that Mexican cartel leader Joaquin «El Chapo» Guzman once boasted about paying a 100 million (£77 million) bribe to the former president of Mexico. If El Chapo’s US trial tells us anything, it’s that eliminating the heads of Mexico’s organized crime groups isn’t going to stop the record levels of bloodshed. As the country’s criminal groups continue tofragmentand diversify while authorities revert tomilitarized security strategies, a drug war that can’t be won seems poised to carry on, with no end in sight. A US jury has found former Sinaloa Cartel kingpin “El Chapo” Guzmán guilty of heading a massive, murderous drug trafficking organisation.

I’m Confident of Winning 2023 Presidential Election, Says Tinubu

At the start of the trial, Mr Lichtman suggested jurors would hear testimony about bribes paid to both Mr Nieto and former Mexican President Felipe Calderon. El Chapo will be sentenced in June, and as the convicted leader of an ongoing criminal enterprise, he faces a life sentence in federal US prison without the possibility of parole. Giving evidence at Brooklyn federal court in New York, Cifuentes testified that he had told US prosecutors Mr Peña Nieto initially asked El Chapo for $250 million (£195 million). Jesus Zambada, another cartel member, testified in November that he paid a multimillion dollar bribe to an aide of current Mexican president, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, in 2005. In November another cartel member testified that an aide to current Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador was allegedly paid a bribe in 2005.

el chapo bribe us officials

A week before the election, Brian Nichols, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, travelled to Honduras to meet with top officials in the Hernández government and military. It appears he read them the riot act about manipulating the election results, and instructed them to allow Castro to win. But it’s uncertain how much further the State Department wants the elites and security forces to cede control, and what concessions from Castro it may have extractedin exchange for allowing her to be elected. Whatever her goals, Castro will have to try to govern without a majority in Congress. Castro intends to abolish the ‘ZEDES’ – special economic zones in which the Constitution doesn’t apply – yet this may have to wait until at least 2023 when the next Supreme Court is elected, by the same Congress.

year-old arrested after five shot dead in North Carolina

“He’s blamed for being the leader while the real leaders are living freely and openly in Mexico,” Mr Lichtman said at the time. Mr Lichtman claimed that Zambada had been left free because he allegedly “bribes the entire government of Mexico including up to the very top, the current president of Mexico” – meaning Enrique Pena Nieto. They claimed he was the leader of the single largest supplier of drugs into US territory. A trial thenbegan in New York on charges of trafficking heroin, cocaine and other illegal drugs. A former Mexican president has just been accused of receiving a bribe from a drug cartel leader.

el chapo bribe us officials

In 2001 he ran away from highly secured prison in Mexico and was not caught until 2014. His getaway from a high-security prison was thoroughly planned and prepared with the involvement of his sons. They bought a property nearby to coordinate the building process of a mile-long tunnel through which El Chapo escaped on a specially designed motorcycle. In 2016 he was captured once again and later extradited to the US for his trial. Mexico launched a money laundering investigation into Kate del Castillo, the actress who reportedlybrokered the interviewbetween actor Sean Penn and alleged drug kingpin Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman. Thebribery trialof Dallas County Commissioner John Wiley Price begins this week in Texas.

Mr. Price denies charges he took money from a company that won a country records contract. Under cross-examination by defense lawyer Lichtman, who referred to transcripts of de-briefings Cifuentes had with US authorities, Cifuentes alleged that a $100 million bribe was paid to Peña Nieto, who was President from 2012 to 2018. While previous testimony at the trial had implicated eco sober house complaints police and army officials as well as lower-level politicians, Cifuentes’s testimony was the first to extend the corruption allegations to Mexico’s top politicians. Top security officials working for Mexico’s past, present and future presidents received suitcases full of millions of dollars, according to remarkable testimony heard in the trial of Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman.